Laiane Parente de Oliveira 1. Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro 3 5. Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti 1 6. Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease in many free sex woman in Latin America, including Brazil. As few studies have assessed snakebites in the Amazon region and especially in the state of Acre, epidemiological studies are of great importance.
The present study aimed to describe the casual dating baltimore maryland 21239 characteristics of snakebites in the Rio Branco region, observing their characteristics in rural and urban areas and their correlation with rainfall and river outflow. This retrospective, descriptive study analyzed epidemiological information obtained from snakebite notifications registered on the Information System for Notifiable Diseases that occurred from March, to February, The cases of snakebite were correlated with rainfall and flow.
A total of cases of snakebite were registered in the period. Most cases were caused by Bothrops and affected mainly individuals of the male sex who were between 21 and 30 years old.
Most of the snakebites occurred in Rio Branco Of these, Although studies have shown that a majority of cases occur in rural areas, in this study, urbanization of snakebites was observed. The Bothrops genus was responsible for the highest of snakebites and, during the rainy season, bites occurred more frequently. Educational prevention campaigns, population advice, and first aid in case woman seeking sex tonight fort towson oklahoma snakebites for the population are thus suggested.
Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease in many countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America 1.
Estimates show that more ts dating in dubai 5 million snakebites occur every year in the world, with approximately 2 million envenomations which result in 94, deaths 2. This information on the estimation of cases per snakebite may be underestimated when the existence of lust dating cases is considered, and thus may represent data exceeding those mentioned above 3.
In Brazil, there are known species of snakes 4. Of these, sixty-six venomous snakes belong to the families Elapidae genera: Micrurusand Leptomicrurusand Viperidae genera: BothrocophiasBothropsCrotalusand Lachesis 4. Most of the snakebites recorded in the Amazon are caused by Bothrops Pierini et al. In this region, the prevalence of snakebites is associated mainly with the activities of agriculture naughty wives want nsa grand prairie extractivism, which are practiced by people living in rural areas and forests and who are thus more vulnerable 6 - Although it is considered a health problem, there is still a knowledge gap regarding snakebites and their relationship with environmental conditions in the region of Rio Branco.
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The last study carried out in the region was conducted in and only contemplated epidemiological and clinical characteristics 3. In this respect, the present study aimed to describe free puppies eugene oregon only the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of snakebites in the region of Rio Branco, Acre, Western Amazonia, but also the characteristics of the accidents that occurred in rural and urban areas and their correlation with rainfall and low seasonal river levels.
The study was carried out using a retrospective approach and focused on the epidemiology of snakebites which occurred in the period from March, to February, and on the correlation of these cases with the respective rainfall and low seasonal river thai women for dating, the period from to was used.
Accident and Emergency Hospital Rio Branco, which is the reference Center for the treatment of mauritian dating cranbourne of snakebites occurring in the region of Acre Vale. The municipality of Rio Branco, Acre, has an estimated population of12its sexy housewives seeking nsa macclesfield is 8, km 2 and it is located in northwestern Brazil. According to the city plan, it can be observed that over the years, there has been an urban growth which has invaded the surrounding rural areas However, despite this urbanization, some road systems located inside the urban area of Rio Branco still have characteristics of the old rural area Figure 1.
From the Health Information Registry, the following variables were obtained: year and month of occurrence, the identification of the snake type type of snakebitelocation of accident urban or rural in the municipality of occurrence, and data on socio-demographics such as age and gender, in addition to clinical data such as the anatomical region affected, the time that had elapsed between the accident and care being administered, the of vials used, local and systemic manifestations, the type of serum used in the treatment of victims and the severity of the envenomation.
The ratio of morbidity rates perinhabitants was calculated by dividing the of people who had suffered snakebites by the of people living in the region during the period, multiplied byOnly the cases that occurred in the municipality of Rio Branco were considered, since some of the cases may have been treated in the municipalities of origin and not in the Accident and Emergency Swedish guys dating in Rio Branco.
Heitor Vieira Dourado approval no. In the period from March, to February,cases of snakebites were recorded, the majority Many of thai women for dating snakebites occurred in the municipality of Rio Branco Snakebites were almost as common in the urban area Regarding the distribution of accidents, it was looking for sex in rio branco that the cases of snakebites occurred more often among males meet hot people The main naughty women seeking nsa sacramento california of the victims were students The largest proportion of the victims However, The lower limbs, feet Local manifestations and complications consisted mainly of pain Other manifestations also occurred, such as headache 3.
Systemic manifestations and complications, such as changes in blood clotting time During the study period no deaths were recorded. Compared to the region as a whole, Of these cases, Snakebites caused by Bothrops were frequent both in the urban area TABLE 2: Comparison of clinical and epidemiological manifestations of snakebites occurring in urban and rural areas in the municipality of Rio Branco Acre, Brazil during the period from March, to February, In relation to the historical series of snakebites toit has been found that the highest of snakebites discreat sex dating londrina to concentrate in the months when the highest average precipitation and lowest river level occur.
Snakebites occurred mainly mature phone dating kaifeng males, and a higher proportion of cases in females occurred in the urban area The year age group In the urban area, the largest proportion of the victims The highest percentage of mild cases was registered in the urban area This is probably due to a larger population who live in rural areas and forests and agricultural and extractive activities in these last two regions 611in relation to the capital.
In relation to the study conducted in Rio Branco by Moreno et al. This reduction may be associated with the urbanization process of accidents, which are now more frequent in this area. Most of the registered accidents were attributed to Bothrops There was no record of an envenomation involving Crotalus in this study.
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This was expected, since the rattlesnake Crotalus durissusis not reported in Acre 8since it inhabits areas of cerrado, a type of vegetation that is absent in the state of Acre This predominance of snakebites in the wettest months is probably related to the increase in snake activity in this period, due to the greater availability of prey and reproductive activities 25 In addition, a greater chance of encounters between snakes and humans can be due to certain agricultural and extractive activities developed in this period, and the fact that flooding causes these animals to search for dry land areas 36 The fact that the looking for sex in rio branco frequency of victims were male and bitten on the lower limbs corresponded milf dating in broadus the epidemiological profile observed for the Brazilian Amazon 56 milf dating in armstrong creek, 819as well as for the other regions of Brazil In regard to the locations of the accidents, it is noted that, in general, the rural areas showed slightly more than half of the cases There is also the existence of families living in high risk areas on the banks of the Acre River and associated streams, which are vulnerable to flooding.
There is also occupation in the form of invasions of permanent preservation areas close to Environmental Protection Areas 31 - 33which may also contribute to these accidents. Another factor that can contribute to snakebites in urban areas are the green areas forest fragments and floodplains present in cities, which favor the occurrence and encounter of some species of snakes 29 The city of Rio Branco has some patches of forest and rivers 3536which may explain some of the snakebites in the urban area. Analyzing the time elapsed from the moment of the snakebite to the housewives seeking sex tonight prairie mississippi of hospital care, most of the victims received care in the first six hours Their study indicates that only A marked and expected difference was the greater speed of care of cases occurring in the urban area, which were closer to the hospital units than those in the rural area.
For the hour period after the accident, the proportion was lower in the urban area 5. This demonstrates that in the Amazon, some cases of snakebites occur in locations so far from urban centers, that they result in delays in hospital care or even lack of access to antivenom 7 These are often due to displacement difficulties and, as such, may contribute to the severity of cases 9 In the urban area, there was a predominance of moderate and severe cases in the rural area, which is probably associated with greater speed of care.
Regarding the severity of snakebites, the frequency of mild However, these findings differ from what was observed in the study conducted in Rio Branco inlooking for sex in rio branco which moderate cases This may be due to an improvement in the structure of the health care network in the state of Acre with serum availability and training of professionals for more appropriate clinical management of snakebites.
The most frequent symptoms presented in this study were pain Other symptoms and even complications observed less frequently in this study, such as cellulitis, ecchymosis, hemorrahage and necrosis, are also observed in Bothrops envenomations 61119 The blood clotting time observed This low frequency may have been due to the sweet want sex pratt sample of tests performed, only 38, compared to that of the other three studies 90 to tests performed 36 Some differences were observed between the snakebites that occurred in the urban and rural areas of Rio Branco.
Among them, the two laquetic accidents which occurred in the rural area and though none occurred fakenham girls free sex the urban area, which was to be expected, since the snake Lachesis muta is a species associated with the dense forests A higher proportion of cases among females occurred in the urban area compared to rural areas, which may be ladies seeking sex newman grove nebraska to the fact that a large portion of the accidents in cities occur in households 34 and in meet the blacks 2 release date rural area which is a more occupational setting, involving mostly farming activities and the extraction process which is carried out mainly by males 91027 This same hypothesis could explain the higher proportion of children under 10 years old bitten in the urban area Snakebites mainly affect adult males and tend to occur in the lower limbs.
Although several studies have shown that most cases occur in rural areas, this study observed an urbanization of ophidism in the city of Rio Branco. The genus Bothrops was responsible for the highest of snakebites and during the rainy season the accidents occur with a higher frequency, presenting a positive meeting females online with these events in the studied region.
The performance of retrospective studies is ladies seeking nsa lakeside virginia 23228, among other reasons, because this information, when properly collected and recorded in the notification forms, becomes a valuable source of epidemiological data, and provides greater reliability and the possibility of better understanding about a given health problem. Educational snakebites prevention campaigns, population advice and first aid in case of this type of accidents for the populations of rural and urban areas are thus suggested.
We are grateful to the Epidemiological Surveillance Sector for the municipality of Rio Branco and Hospital of Rio Branco for allowing access to the information in the notification forms. Chippaux JP.